乐鱼全站app

免长途费

全国咨询热线:0317-8269992

资讯默认广告
当前位置:华正机械主页 > 资讯中心 > 走进华正 > 技术支持 > 数控机床CNC开机调试步骤

数控机床CNC开机调试步骤

文(wen)章出处:onecyan.com 作者:华(hua)正(zheng)机械人气:发表时间:2014-05-19 09:05

  数控机床是一种技术含量很高的机电仪一体化的机床,用户买到一台数控机床后,是否正确的安全地开机,调试是很关键的一步。这一步的正确与否在很大程序上决定了这台数控机床能否发挥正常的经济效率以及它本身的使用寿命,这对数控机床的生产厂和用户厂都是事关重大的课题。数控机床开机,调试应按下列的步骤进行:

  1.通电前的外观检查

  机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)打(da)开机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)控箱,检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi),接(jie)触器(qi),熔断器(qi),伺服(fu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)速度(du),控制(zhi)单(dan)元(yuan)(yuan)插(cha)座(zuo),主(zhu)轴电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)速度(du)控制(zhi)单(dan)元(yuan)(yuan)插(cha)座(zuo)等有无(wu)(wu)松(song)(song)动(dong)(dong),如(ru)有松(song)(song)动(dong)(dong)应恢复正常状态(tai),有锁(suo)紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou)的(de)(de)接(jie)插(cha)件(jian)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)锁(suo)紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),有转(zhuan)接(jie)盒(he)的(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)转(zhuan)接(jie)盒(he)上的(de)(de)插(cha)座(zuo),接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)有无(wu)(wu)松(song)(song)动(dong)(dong),有锁(suo)紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou)的(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)锁(suo)紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)。CNC电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)箱检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)打(da)开CNC电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)箱门,检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)各(ge)(ge)类接(jie)口插(cha)座(zuo),伺服(fu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)反(fan)馈线(xian)(xian)(xian)插(cha)座(zuo),主(zhu)轴脉冲(chong)(chong)发(fa)生器(qi)插(cha)座(zuo),手摇脉冲(chong)(chong)发(fa)生器(qi)插(cha)座(zuo),CRT插(cha)座(zuo)等,如(ru)有松(song)(song)动(dong)(dong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)重新(xin)插(cha)好,有锁(suo)紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)构(gou)的(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)锁(suo)紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)。按照说明书检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)各(ge)(ge)个印刷线(xian)(xian)(xian)路(lu)板(ban)(ban)上的(de)(de)短路(lu)端子的(de)(de)设(she)置情况(kuang),一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)符(fu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)生产厂设(she)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)状态(tai),确(que)实有误的(de)(de)应重新(xin)设(she)置,一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)般情况(kuang)下无(wu)(wu)需重新(xin)设(she)置,但用(yong)(yong)户一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)对短路(lu)端子的(de)(de)设(she)置状态(tai)做好原始记(ji)录。接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)质(zhi)量(liang)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)所(suo)有的(de)(de)接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)端子。包括(kuo)强弱电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)部分在装配时机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)生产厂自行(xing)接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)端子及(ji)各(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)端子,每个端子都(dou)要(yao)(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)旋(xuan)具紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)固(gu)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)次,直(zhi)到用(yong)(yong)旋(xuan)具拧不(bu)(bu)(bu)动(dong)(dong)为止,各(ge)(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)插(cha)座(zuo)一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)(yao)拧紧(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)。电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁阀(fa)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)所(suo)有电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁阀(fa)都(dou)要(yao)(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)手推动(dong)(dong)数次,以(yi)防(fang)止长时间不(bu)(bu)(bu)通(tong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)造成(cheng)的(de)(de)动(dong)(dong)作不(bu)(bu)(bu)良,如(ru)发(fa)现异常,应作好记(ji)录,以(yi)备通(tong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后(hou)确(que)认修理或(huo)更换。限(xian)位(wei)开关检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)所(suo)有限(xian)位(wei)开关动(dong)(dong)作的(de)(de)灵(ling)活及(ji)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)性是(shi)否牢固(gu),发(fa)现动(dong)(dong)作不(bu)(bu)(bu)良或(huo)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)不(bu)(bu)(bu)牢的(de)(de)应立即(ji)处理。按钮(niu)及(ji)开关检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)操(cao)作面板(ban)(ban)上按钮(niu)及(ji)开关检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha),检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)操(cao)作面板(ban)(ban)上所(suo)有按钮(niu),开关,指示灯的(de)(de)接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian),发(fa)现有误应立即(ji)处理,检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)CRT单(dan)元(yuan)(yuan)上的(de)(de)插(cha)座(zuo)及(ji)接(jie)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。地线(xian)(xian)(xian)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu)有良好的(de)(de)地线(xian)(xian)(xian),测量(liang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)地线(xian)(xian)(xian),接(jie)地电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻不(bu)(bu)(bu)能大于1Ω。电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)相(xiang)(xiang)序(xu)(xu)检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)用(yong)(yong)相(xiang)(xiang)序(xu)(xu)表检(jian)(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)(cha)输入电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)(de)相(xiang)(xiang)序(xu)(xu),确(que)认输入电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)的(de)(de)相(xiang)(xiang)序(xu)(xu)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上各(ge)(ge)处标定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)相(xiang)(xiang)序(xu)(xu)应绝对一(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)致。

  有(you)二次接线的(de)设备,如电源变压(ya)器等,必须确认二次接线的(de)相序的(de)一致性。要保证各处(chu)相序的(de)绝(jue)对正(zheng)确。此时(shi)应(ying)测量电源电压(ya),做好(hao)记录(lu)。

  2.机床总电压的接通(tong)

  接通(tong)机床(chuang)总电(dian)(dian)(dian)源,检查CNC电(dian)(dian)(dian)箱(xiang),主(zhu)轴电(dian)(dian)(dian)机冷却(que)风扇,机床(chuang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)箱(xiang)冷却(que)风扇的转向是否正(zheng)确,润滑(hua),液压等处的油标志指示以及(ji)机床(chuang)照明灯是否正(zheng)常,各(ge)熔断器(qi)有无损坏,如有异常应立即停电(dian)(dian)(dian)检修,无异常可(ke)以继(ji)续进行(xing)。测量强电(dian)(dian)(dian)各(ge)部分(fen)的电(dian)(dian)(dian)压特别是供(gong)CNC及(ji)伺服单元用的电(dian)(dian)(dian)源变(bian)压器(qi)的初次级(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压,并作好记录(lu)。观察有无漏油,特别是供(gong)转塔转位(wei)、卡紧(jin),主(zhu)轴换(huan)档的以及(ji)卡盘卡紧(jin)等处的液压缸和(he)电(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)阀。如有漏油应立即停电(dian)(dian)(dian)修理或更换(huan)。

  3.CNC电(dian)箱通(tong)电(dian)

  按CNC电源通电按扭,接通CNC电源,观(guan)(guan)(guan)察CRT显示,直(zhi)到(dao)出(chu)现正(zheng)(zheng)常画(hua)面为止。如果出(chu)现ALARM显示,应(ying)(ying)该寻找(zhao)故障并(bing)排除,此时应(ying)(ying)重新送电检查。打开(kai)(kai)(kai)CNC电源,根据(ju)有(you)(you)关资料上(shang)给(ji)出(chu)的(de)(de)测(ce)试(shi)(shi)端子的(de)(de)位(wei)(wei)置(zhi)测(ce)量(liang)各级电压,有(you)(you)偏(pian)差的(de)(de)应(ying)(ying)调整到(dao)给(ji)定(ding)值,并(bing)作(zuo)(zuo)好(hao)记录。将状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)(tai)开(kai)(kai)(kai)关置(zhi)于适当的(de)(de)位(wei)(wei)置(zhi),如日本FANUC系统(tong)应(ying)(ying)放(fang)(fang)置(zhi)在(zai)MDI状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)(tai),选(xuan)择到(dao)参(can)数页面。逐条逐位(wei)(wei)地(di)核对参(can)数,这些(xie)参(can)数应(ying)(ying)与随机所(suo)带参(can)数表符合(he)。如发现有(you)(you)不一(yi)致(zhi)的(de)(de)参(can)数,应(ying)(ying)搞清各个参(can)数的(de)(de)意义后(hou)(hou)(hou)再决定(ding)是否修改,如齿(chi)隙补偿的(de)(de)数值可(ke)能与参(can)数表不一(yi)致(zhi),这在(zai)进行(xing)实际加工(gong)后(hou)(hou)(hou)可(ke)随时进行(xing)修改。将状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)(tai)选(xuan)择开(kai)(kai)(kai)关放(fang)(fang)置(zhi)在(zai)JOG位(wei)(wei)置(zhi),将点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动速(su)(su)(su)度(du)放(fang)(fang)在(zai)最低(di)档(dang),分别(bie)进行(xing)各坐标正(zheng)(zheng)反方(fang)向(xiang)的(de)(de)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动操作(zuo)(zuo),同时用手(shou)按与点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动方(fang)向(xiang)相对应(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)超(chao)(chao)程(cheng)保护开(kai)(kai)(kai)关,验(yan)证其保护作(zuo)(zuo)用的(de)(de)可(ke)靠性,然(ran)后(hou)(hou)(hou),再进行(xing)慢速(su)(su)(su)的(de)(de)超(chao)(chao)程(cheng)试(shi)(shi)验(yan),验(yan)证超(chao)(chao)程(cheng)撞块安装的(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)确(que)性。将状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)(tai)开(kai)(kai)(kai)关置(zhi)于回零位(wei)(wei)置(zhi),完成(cheng)回零操作(zuo)(zuo),参(can)考点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)返回的(de)(de)动作(zuo)(zuo)不完成(cheng)就不能进行(xing)其它操作(zuo)(zuo)。因(yin)此遇此情况(kuang)应(ying)(ying)首先进行(xing)本项操作(zuo)(zuo),然(ran)后(hou)(hou)(hou)再进行(xing)第4项操作(zuo)(zuo)。将状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)(tai)开(kai)(kai)(kai)关置(zhi)于JOG位(wei)(wei)置(zhi)或MDI位(wei)(wei)置(zhi),进行(xing)手(shou)动变(bian)档(dang)试(shi)(shi)验(yan),验(yan)证后(hou)(hou)(hou)将主轴(zhou)调速(su)(su)(su)开(kai)(kai)(kai)关放(fang)(fang)在(zai)最低(di)位(wei)(wei)置(zhi),进行(xing)各档(dang)的(de)(de)主轴(zhou)正(zheng)(zheng)反转试(shi)(shi)验(yan),观(guan)(guan)(guan)察主轴(zhou)运转的(de)(de)情况(kuang)和速(su)(su)(su)度(du)显示的(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)确(que)性,然(ran)后(hou)(hou)(hou)再逐渐升(sheng)速(su)(su)(su)到(dao)最高转速(su)(su)(su),观(guan)(guan)(guan)察主轴(zhou)运转的(de)(de)稳定(ding)性。进行(xing)手(shou)动导轨润滑(hua)试(shi)(shi)验(yan),使导轨有(you)(you)良(liang)好(hao)的(de)(de)润滑(hua)。逐渐变(bian)化快移超(chao)(chao)调开(kai)(kai)(kai)关和进给(ji)倍率开(kai)(kai)(kai)关,随意点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动刀架,观(guan)(guan)(guan)察速(su)(su)(su)度(du)变(bian)化的(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)确(que)性。

  4.MDI试验(yan)

  测(ce)量(liang)主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)实际转速(su)将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)锁住开关放(fang)在(zai)接通(tong)位(wei)(wei)(wei)置(zhi)(zhi),用(yong)手动数据(ju)输入指令,进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)任(ren)意变(bian)档,变(bian)速(su)试验(yan),测(ce)量(liang)主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)实际转速(su),并观察(cha)主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)速(su)度显示(shi)值,调(diao)整其(qi)误差应(ying)限定在(zai)5%之内。进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)转塔或(huo)刀(dao)座的(de)选(xuan)刀(dao)试验(yan)其(qi)目的(de)是检查刀(dao)座或(huo)正、反转和(he)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)精度的(de)正确性。功(gong)能(neng)试验(yan)根据(ju)定货的(de)情况(kuang)不(bu)(bu)同(tong),功(gong)能(neng)也不(bu)(bu)同(tong),可(ke)根据(ju)具体情况(kuang)对各(ge)个(ge)功(gong)能(neng)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)试验(yan)。为(wei)防止意外情况(kuang)发生,最好先将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)锁住进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)试验(yan),然(ran)后(hou)(hou)再放(fang)开机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)试验(yan)。EDIT功(gong)能(neng)试验(yan)将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)状态选(xuan)择开关置(zhi)(zhi)于EDIT位(wei)(wei)(wei)置(zhi)(zhi),自行(xing)(xing)(xing)编制一简单程(cheng)序(xu),尽可(ke)能(neng)多地包括各(ge)种功(gong)能(neng)指令和(he)辅(fu)助功(gong)能(neng)指令,移动尺寸以机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)最大行(xing)(xing)(xing)程(cheng)为(wei)限,同(tong)时进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)程(cheng)序(xu)的(de)增加,删除和(he)修改。自动状态试验(yan)将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)锁住,用(yong)编制的(de)程(cheng)序(xu)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)空运转试验(yan),验(yan)证程(cheng)序(xu)的(de)正确性,然(ran)后(hou)(hou)放(fang)开机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang),分别将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)进(jin)(jin)给倍率(lv)开关,快(kuai)速(su)超调(diao)开关,主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)速(su)度超调(diao)开关进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)多种变(bian)化,使机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)在(zai)上述各(ge)开关的(de)多种变(bian)化的(de)情况(kuang)下进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)充(chong)分地运行(xing)(xing)(xing),后(hou)(hou)将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)各(ge)超调(diao)开关置(zhi)(zhi)于100%处,使机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)充(chong)分运行(xing)(xing)(xing),观察(cha)整机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)工作情况(kuang)是否正常。